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The spine or backbone is a column of vertebrae in the back part of the upper body. There is a canal that runs through the length of the backbone. Inside this canal is the spinal cord.
The backbone supports about half of the weight of the body, with the other half supported by the muscles.
Common back injuries include sprains and strains, herniated disks, and fractured vertebrae.
The shoulder must be mobile enough for the wide range actions of the arms and hands, but also stable enough to allow for actions such as lifting, pushing and pulling. The compromise between mobility and stability results in a large number of shoulder problems not faced by other joints such as the hip.
Common shoulder conditions and injuries include: Shoulder instability, rotator cuff tear, frozen shoulder, overuse/strains, and arthritis.
The elbow is a hinge-joint between the bones of the upper and lower arm. It allows the lower arm to be extended or retracted (moved in). The elbow also allows the arm to turn. It moves by using three ligaments: the anterior, posterior, ulnar collateral and radial collateral ligaments.
Common elbow conditions and injuries include UCL Injury, Bursitis, Tennis Elbow and Muscle Strains.
The hands are the main structures for physically manipulating the environment. The sense of touch is intimately associated with hands.
The wrist is the carpus or carpal bones, the complex of eight bones that connects the hand to the arm.
Common conditions and injuries to the hand or wrist include Sprains, Fractures, Tendon Injuries and Carpal tunnel syndrome.
The hip is located between the femur and acetabulum of the pelvis and its primary function is to support the weight of the body in both static position and dynamic walking or running postures. The hip joints are the most important part in retaining balance and posture.
Common conditions and injuries of the hip include arthritis, tendonitis, lumbar pain, hip fracture and snapping hip syndrome.
The knee is a large pivotal hinge joint, which permits flexion and extension as well as a slight medial and lateral rotation. Since the knee supports nearly the whole weight of the body, it is vulnerable to both acute injury and the development of osteoarthritis.
Common conditions and injuries of the knee include ACL injury, torn meniscus, fractures, ruptured tendon, and surgical interventions.
The foot is a strong and complex mechanical structure containing exactly 26 bones, 33 joints (20 of which are actively articulated), and more than a hundred muscles, tendons, and ligaments.
The ankle is the region where the foot and the leg meet and is made up of 3 distinct joints.
Conditions and injuries of the foot and ankle include fractures, arthritis, and achilles tendinitis.